1 for example. While the invention has been described in terms of what is presently considered to be the most practical and preferred embodiments, it is to be understood that the invention needs not to be limited to the above embodiments. Figure 3. 3B. The sensing unit, coupled to the control unit, comprises an amplifier, having a first input end, a second input end, and an output end; a first transistor having a collector, a emitter, and a base, and a second transistor having a collector, a emitter and a base, wherein the collector of the first transistor is coupled to the collector of the second transistor, the base of the first transistor is coupled to a bias voltage, and the base of the second transistor is coupled to the output end; a switch unit, coupled to the first input end and the second input end of the amplifier and one of the first transistor and the second transistor, for switching between a first connection configuration and a second connection configuration according to the control signal, wherein under the first connection configuration, the emitters of the first and second transistors are respectively coupled to the first and second input ends of the amplifier, and under the second connection configuration, the emitters of the first and second transistors are respectively coupled to the second and first input ends of the amplifier; and a current module, coupled to the first transistor and the second transistor, for respectively providing a first current and a second current to the emitters of the first transistor and the second transistor; wherein the sensing unit senses an absolute temperature under the first connection configuration and the second connection configuration to generate a first voltage value and a second voltage value. sensors that operate over a range of supply voltages. FIG. TWI378227B TW98106349A TW98106349A TWI378227B TW I378227 B TWI378227 B TW I378227B TW 98106349 A TW98106349 A TW 98106349A TW 98106349 A TW98106349 A TW 98106349A TW I378227 B TWI378227 B TW I378227B Authority TW Taiwan 3A and FIG. 3B are schematic diagrams of first and second connection configurations respectively. The device is designed in IME platform through OpSIS, which enables interconnection of distributed PTAT … All switch units inside the instrument amplifier 60 can perform switching according to the control signal generated by the control unit 21. V REF is the result of the summation of V PTAT and the. The PTAT sensor 20 comprises a control unit 21, a sensing unit 22, and a calculation unit 23. The design of this kind of circuit must rely on accu-rate device modelling, specially regarding temperature variation. The sixth connection configuration is that the gate of the transistor M2 is coupled to a drain of the transistor M2 and a drain of the M1 is coupled to the output end 227. Memory controllers support either ΔVBE or PTAT temperature sensors which provide accurate loadline performance. Taking R4=20R3 and R2=20 R1 for example, Formula 6 is then: A built-in algorithm eliminates errors due to series resistance between the LTC2997 and the sensor diode.The LTC2997 gives accurate results with low-cost diodeconnected NPN or PNP tra MERGER;ASSIGNOR:MSTAR SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.;REEL/FRAME:050665/0001. Semiconductor Temperature Sensors Challenge Precision RTDs and Thermistors in Building Automation 1 Introduction Temperature measurement applications in building automation and here, in particular, commercial air-conditioning use a wide variety of temperature sensors, such as thermocouples, resistance temperature Under the second connection configuration, a current (the second current at this point) flowing through R5 and arriving at the emitter of the transistor Q1 is n times a current (the first current at this point) flowing through R7 and R6 and arriving at the emitter of the transistor Q2. If the ratio between the first and second resistor is chosen properly, the first order effects of the temperature dependency of the diode and the PTAT current will cancel out. It kinda makes sense since the output signal of the temperature sensor is also PTAT but I need more clarification Thanks. Silicon bandgap temperature sensor Last updated September 22, 2020. 6, an input voltage and an output voltage of the instrument amplifier 60 are respectively Vin (=V+-V_) and Vout, and the instrument amplifier 60 comprises three amplifiers 61, 62 and 63 and resistors R1, R2, R3 and R4. A method for generating a PTAT voltage is provided according to the present invention. 98106349 filed on Feb. 27, 2009. 2, the transistors Q1 and Q2 are designed to be a pair of circuit components having a matching relationship. The PTAT sensor comprises a control unit for generating a control signal; a sensing unit, comprising at least a pair of circuit components having a matching relationship, for sensing an absolute temperature under the first connection configuration and the second connection configuration respectively to generate a first voltage value and a second voltage value, wherein the first connection configuration and the second connection configuration are decided by interchanging the circuit connections of the pair of circuit components according to the control signal; and a calculation unit, coupled to the sensing unit, for calculating a PTAT voltage value according to the first voltage value and the second voltage values. As mentioned above, when an absolute temperature is sensed, a sensing error occurs for the reason of a mismatch between circuit components. The switch unit, coupled to the output end of the amplifier and one of the first transistor and the second transistor, switches between a first connection configuration and a second connection configuration according to the control signal, wherein under the first connection configuration, the base of the first transistor is coupled to a bias voltage and the base of the second transistor is coupled to the output end of the amplifier, and under the second connection configuration, the base of the first transistor is coupled to the output end, and the base of the second transistor is coupled to the bias voltage. As the sensor will be used for temperature monitoring in an implant where the temperature range of interest is restricted, the errors due to non-linearity are small (Figure 3). When the first preferred embodiment is incorporated to the second preferred embodiment, the sensing unit 22 can generate up to 23×27=210 types of circuit configurations, where the control signal has at least 10 bits. PTAT Temperature Sensor for Micro-Ring Resonator Stabilization. Silicon bandgap temperature sensor Last updated September 22, 2020. The sensor utilizes the difference of a current proportional to the absolute temperature (PTAT) and another complementary to the absolute temperature (CTAT), generating a high-slope PTAT voltage with minimum value close to zero. Formula 6 is deduced from Formula 4 and Formula 5: V out = V + * 1 + R 4 R 3 1 + R 1 R 2 - V - * R 4 R 3 . The switch units 222 and 223 are switched to generate the first, second, third and fourth connection configurations via the control signal generated by the control unit 21. The design goals of this study are to implement a PTAT current source capable of maintaining stable output despite variation in power supply voltage and CMOS process pa- The calculation unit, coupled to the sensing unit, calculates a PTAT voltage value according to the first voltage value and the second voltage value. Other similar approaches are also applied to the sensing unit 22 under other circuit configurations to generate the corresponding voltage value. Calculations on a PTAT current source, derivation of formulea for instantiation. They are usually thermistor devices. ΔV BE =V T ln [(I E1 /I E2)], Per misurare la temperatura di qualcosa è necessario che la temperatura del sensore eguagli la temperatura dell’oggetto della misura. Errors resulting from nonidealities in the readout circuitry are reduced to the 0.01 C level. VPTAT is obtained via a simple analysis: Smart temperature sensors and temperature sensor systems 61 Fig. Since vertical PNP transistor in single n-well submicron process is prone to process variations, it impacts the accuracy of temperature sensor. The switch units 601 and 602 are used for interchanging connection relationships between the amplifier 61 and 62. This is due to the well-defined I-V temperature characteristics of the semiconductor PN junction. The sensing unit senses an absolute temperature under the first and second connection configurations to generate corresponding first and second voltage values. That is, under the first connection configuration, a current (the second current at this point) flowing through R6 and arriving at the emitter of the transistor Q2 is n times a current (the first current at this point) flowing through R7 and R5 and arriving at the emitter of the transistor Q2. For example, in the amplifier 221 illustrated in FIG. Now, along with Analog Devices, many other vendors offer a wide array of sensors based on this principle, but with other output formats and functions in addition to the basic PTAT current. The emitter of the transistor Q3 is coupled to the switch unit 222 and the collector and base of the transistor Q3 are connected together to the collectors of the transistors Q1 and Q2. Since the base voltage difference is very small, the sensing unit 22 transmits the base voltage difference to the amplifying unit 228 for amplification, so as to obtain a corresponding voltage value generated by sensing the absolute temperature under the first and third connection configurations. For example, in a global position system (GPS) device, an oscillator frequency of a local oscillator needs to be extremely precise to maintain the accuracy of positioning. FIG. A collector of the transistor Q1 is coupled to a collector of the transistor Q2, and emitters of the transistors Q1 and Q2 are coupled to the switch unit 223 and the current module 224. On the contrary, it is intended to cover various modifications and similar arrangements included within the spirit and scope of the appended claims which are to be accorded with the broadest interpretation so as to encompass all such modifications and similar structures. 2) of the amplifier 221 are connected to the switch unit 222. ΔV BE =V T ln [(I C1 /A 1)/(I C2 /A 2)], The control unit 21 generates a control signal to control the sensing unit 22 to switch between a plurality of circuit configurations as described in detail below. In a third preferred embodiment, the current module 24 comprises a current source 2241, resistors R5, R6 and R7, and a switch unit 2242, as illustrated in FIG. Index Terms—bandgap, ... PTAT, over resistance R 2 and a temperature-independent reference voltage, V REF, at the bases of the bipolar pair. Sensor de temperatura de banda prohibida de silicio - Silicon bandgap temperature sensor. These techniques require extra optical power on the silicon-photonic chips or complex circuitry for implementation. a first resistor with a first coupling end and a second coupling end, wherein said first coupling end is coupled to the first emitter; a second resistor with a third coupling end and a fourth coupling end, wherein said third coupling end is coupled to the second emitter; a third resistor with a fifth coupling end and a sixth coupling end, wherein said fifth coupling end is coupled to said second coupling end and said sixth coupling end is coupled to said fourth coupling end; and. The calculation unit coupled to the sensing unit generates a PTAT voltage value according to the first and second voltage values. The plurality of connection configurations are generated by interchanging connection relationships between at least one pair of circuit components having a matching relationship. The switch unit 51 switches between the fifth and sixth connection configurations according to the control signal. A built-in algorithm eliminates errors due to series resistance between the LTC2997 and the sensor diode.The LTC2997 gives accurate results with low-cost diodeconnected NPN or PNP tra Magnetic sensors: Hall plates; differential-amplification magnetic sensors (DAMS); MAGFET and dual-drain MAGFET; vertical and lateral magnetotransistors. In addition, the review of the circuitry inside the temperature sensor will provide an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of silicon sensors as compared to other temperature sensor technologies. Therefore, an emitter voltage VE1 of the transistors Q1 is equal to an emitter voltage VE2 of the transistor Q2. They are also employed in-bandgap ref- erence circuits which are commonly used to generate temperature independent bias voltages and … Introduction to Hall and magnetoresistance effects. That is, when the amplifiers 61 and 62 wish to interchange connection configurations as illustrated in FIG. V REF V PTAT R 1 R 2 B Q 1 Q 2 M 3 M 4 M 5 The second connection configuration is that the base of the transistor Q1 is coupled to the output end 227 and the base of the transistor Q2 is coupled to the emitter of the transistor Q3, as illustrated in FIG. A PTAT sensing circuit is a common temperature sensing circuit applied to a situation where accurate temperature detection is needed. Sensori di temperatura Un sensore di temperatura è un dispositivo in cui una grandezza fisica cambia significativamente in funzione della sua temperatura. 5, P-channel metal-oxide semiconductor (PMOS) transistors M1 and M2 are circuit components having a matching relationship, and gates of the transistors M1 and M2 are coupled to each other. 1. A proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) sensor is capable of reducing a sensing error resulted from a mismatch between circuit components. Therefore, ΔVBE is equal to a base voltage difference of the transistors Q1 and Q2. FIG. The fourth connection configuration is that the emitters of the transistors Q1 and Q2 are respectively connected to the input ends 226 and 225, as illustrated in FIG. In addition, no current flows through the two input ends of the amplifier 63 such that a current flows through R1 is equal to a current flows through R2 and a current flows through R3 is equal to a current flows through R4. FIG. Meijer’s Celsius temperature sensor has problems due to its small output signal (i. High Precision PTAT Temperature Sensor for Deep Sub-micron CMOS systems Christian Falconi, Marco Fratini, Arnaldo D’Amico Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica Università di Roma “Tor Vergata” Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma, Italy falconi@eln.uniroma2.it The inverter-based temperature-to-pulse generator as a temperature sensor was used to convert the test temperature into a pulse with a width PTAT. In Step 80, a circuit for sensing an absolute temperature is changed the connection to be a plurality of connection configurations such that a plurality of voltage values corresponding to the absolute temperature are generated. The sensing unit 22 senses an absolute temperature under eight circuit configurations respectively to generate eight corresponding voltage values. In recent years, an innovative time-domain smart temperature sensor was proposed to substantially reduce the cost and circuit complexity of smart sensors for VLSI systems, as shown in Figure 1 . Q: IS the AD590 the only solid-state temperature sensor available? De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. LM34 Fahrenheit temperature sensor) and Figure 5 (an LM35 Celsius temperature sensor) have been developed to have a simpler calibration procedure, an output voltage with a relatively large tempco, and a curvature compensation circuit to account for the non-linearcharacteristics of VBE versus temperature. Figure 1: Block diagram of integrated temperature sensor [1] As shown in Fig 1, the basic principle of a CMOS integrated temperature sensor is to generate a temperature dependent signal (V PTAT) and a temperature independent signal as a reference (V REF). The calculation unit 23 calculates an average value of the four digital voltage values, with the average value serving as the PTAT voltage value. A proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) sensor, comprising: a control unit, for generating a control signal; a sensing unit, coupled to the control unit comprising: an amplifier having a first input end, a second input end, and an output end; a first transistor having a first collector, a first emitter, and a first base, wherein the first emitter is coupled to the first input end of the amplifier; a second transistor having a second collector, a second emitter, and a second base, wherein the second collector is coupled to the first collector, and the second emitter is coupled to the second input end of the amplifier; a first switch unit, coupled to the output end of the amplifier, the first transistor, and the second transistor, wherein the first switch connects the output end of the amplifier to the first transistor in a second connection configuration, or the first switch connects the output end of the amplifier to the second transistor in a first connection configuration according to the control signal; a current module, coupled to the first transistor and the second transistor, wherein the current module provides a first current to the first emitter and a second current to the second emitter under the first connection configuration, or the first current module provides the second current to the first emitter and the first current to the second emitter under the second connection configuration according to the control signal; wherein the sensing unit generates a first voltage value by sensing an absolute temperature under the first connection configuration, and generates a second voltage value by sensing the absolute temperature under the second connection configuration; and. 5 is a circuit diagram of an amplifier of a sensing unit in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention. However, a sensing error in the PTAT sensing circuit 10 may be resulted from a mismatch between its circuit components. The resulting voltage is about 1.2–1.3 V, depending on the particular technology and circuit design, and is close to the theoretical 1.22 eV bandgap of silicon at 0 K. FIG. This patent application is based on Taiwan, R.O.C. ΔV EB =V T ln [(I C4 /A 4)/(I C5 /A 5)] For ex: In the output image, room temperature is approximately 250C. S. Saeedi, A. Emami, “Silicon-photonic PTAT temperature sensor for micro-ring resonator thermal stabilization,” IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015. The PTAT temperature sensor is distributed around the ring using pairs of PN junction to avoid temperature error in presence of temperature gradients. development of integrated temperature sensors based on CMOS technology. A PTAT sensor is provided according to the present invention. The switch unit 222, coupled between the output ends 227A and 227B and the transistors Q1 and Q2, switches between the first connection configuration and the second connection configuration according to the control signal provided by the control unit 21. The switch units 612, 622 and 632 are used for respectively interchanging connection relationships of the pair of internal circuit components having the matching relationship in the amplifiers 61, 62 and 63. a second switch unit, coupled to the first input end, the second input end, the first transistor, and the second transistor, for switching between a third connection configuration and a fourth connection configuration according to the control signal, wherein under the third connection configuration, the first emitter is coupled to the first input end, and the second emitter is coupled to the second input end, and under the fourth connection configuration, the first emitter is coupled to the second input end, and the second emitter is coupled to the first input end. The switch unit 223, coupled to the input ends 225 and 226 and the transistors Q1 and Q2, switches between a third connection configuration and a fourth connection configuration according to the control signal provided by the control unit 21. type humidity sensor interface circuit with on-chip PTAT temperature sensor is shown in Figure 1.